Engineered wood types, sizes and uses: As a result of technological advancement, wood-alternative materials are being used, like wood or better quality than wood. These favor quality, heat, sound, fire resistance level, price, weight, etc. Wood alternatives are currently widely used. Insects and fungi less attack on this alternative wood.
Engineered wood types, sizes and uses
List of the most common engineered woods are given below-
- Shaving board
- Wafer board
- Baton board
- Insulating board
- Medium hardboard
- Super hardboard
- Soft board
- Laminated board
- Multi plyboard
- Composite board
The veneer is the layer of best quality wood. Its thickness is usually 0.04 cm, to be 0.82 cm. (1 “/ 64 to 1” / 4). Veneer makes plywood, laminated board, baton board, etc. The method by which glue is applied to the inferior wood layer along with the superior wood layer to enhance the beauty and durability of the inferior wood is called veneering. This method is used to make plywood boards, laminated boards, batten boards, etc.
Plywood is usually made by applying pressure through the machine by gluing the seamless veneer together, such as – Three Ply, Five Ply, or Seven Ply, etc. Multiply board is plywood with more than three layers of three-ply. The three plyboards have three levels: face, cross band, and core. The upper layer of the three thin wooden layers is called the face, and the middle layer is called the crossband. The crossband is opposite the grain of the face or at a right angle. And in the case of a five-plyboard, the lower layer of the face, which is parallel to the face’s scales, is called the core. An excellent quality veneer is used on plywood faces. And low-quality veneers are used in cross veneers.
The size of the plywood depends on the thickness. Plywood is traded as square meters or square feet. The size and thickness of plywood range from 0.03 cm. to 0.12 cm. (1 “/ 6 to 1” / 2) and its length and width, respectively –
- 240 cm. x 120 cm. (8′-0 “x 4′-0”)
- 210 cm. x 120 cm. (7′-0 “x 4′-0”)
- 210 cm. x 90 cm. (7′-0 “x 3′-0”)
- 160 cm. x 120 cm. (6′-0 “x 4′-0”)
- 160 cm. x 90 cm. (6′-0 “x 3-0”)
- 160 cm. x 90 cm. (6′-0 “x 3′-0”)
- 210 cm. x 105 cm, (6′-0 “x 3′-6”)
- 150 cm. x 105 cm. (5′-0 “x 3′-6”)
- 120 cm. x 60 cm, (4′-0 “x 2′-0”)
- 75 cm. x 75 cm. (2′-6 “x 2′-6”)
Different sizes of plywood are available to buy in the market. Plywood is used in door panels, ceilings, flush doors, chair bottoms, partitions, etc.
Particleboards are usually made of unsuitable pieces of wood for factory use, wood planer havics after planing, mill wood residues, unused pieces of furniture, discarded parts of veneer plywood, sawdust, logging residues, small treetops, bark, jute sticks, bagasse, bass particle boards are made of stalks, etc., and the name of the board is determined based on these products. These boards do not have to pay much finishing. Particleboard is made by high pressure by mixing glue by making pulp of the above products. The thickness of the boards is 0.12 cm. to 5 cm. (1 “/ 4 to 2”), length and width 240 cm x 120 cm. (8′-0 “, 4′-0”) and density is usually 650 (48). These boards are available in the market to buy as a piece. These boards are commonly used for tabletops, cabinets, wall cases, tool benches, drafting tables, partitions, bookcases, kitchen cabinets, musical instruments, flash doors, floors, etc.
Batten boards are usually made like laminated boards. However, these boards are made by arranging small pieces of wood, putting veneer and glue on the top and bottom, and using a hydraulic press. Wood nails can be easily placed in the middle of this board, and the amount of compression is less. The thickness of this board ranges from 12 mm to 65 mm (1 “/ 4 to 3”), and the standard size is 240 cm. x 120 cm. (8′-0 “x 4′-0”). However, you can deduct it later as required. It is sold as pieces. This board is used in decorative furniture works and partitions.
The core of this type of board is not more than 2.18 cm. (6 “/ 8) thick, made of a few wooden blocks, and bound by a layer of veneer at the top and bottom. This board is made by hydraulic pressure. The thickness of this board ranges from 1.2 cm to 2.5 cm. (7″/ 8 to 1”), standard size 240 cm x 120 cm, (6′-0 “x 4′-0”). It is used in making furniture, partitions, doors, and windows.
These boards are usually made of different fiber products. For example, sugarcane fiber, cane, wood pulp, fibrous parts of plants are mixed with glue in a heavy crushing machine to make fiberboard. This board is light but very stiff. All the types included in this board are made in the same manner. Its thickness is about 0.08 cm. To be 0.12 cm. (6 “/16 to 1″/2) and length and width 240 cm. x 120 cm. (6′-0 “x 4′-0”). It is available in different sizes. This board is used to make partitions, doors, windows, packing faces, flash doors, tabletops, etc.
The wooden slices inside the two faces of the veneer in this board are worked from the edge of the multi-plywood, and these boards are made by pressing the two faces along the top and bottom of the veneer. The thickness of this board is usually 10 cm. to 5 cm. (4 “-2”), and the standard size is up to 240 cm. x 120 cm. (8′-0 “x 4′-0”). These boards are commonly used to make doors, windows, tabletops, signboards, etc.
Multi ply board
We already know that plywood is made of multi-ply wood with more than three layers of veneer. This board ranges in thickness from 13 mm. to 25 mm. (1 “/ 2 to 1”) and usually the same length and width as plywood and sold as plywood. It is used for door panels, ceilings, glass doors, partitions, etc.
This board is made by grinding one or two layers of asbestos fiber or glue with electrically conductive material along with some common veneers. These boards act as light and non-flammable materials. It is commonly used in factories, cinema halls, and other places where the fire is a risk of damage.
Veneer, plywood, and Formica
Veneer: The thin layer of wood is called a veneer. The veneer thickness usually ranges from 0.04 cm. to 0.72 cm. (1″/ 64 to 1″/ 4).
How to cut veneer?
Veneers are usually cut in three ways. E.g.
- Saw Cut
- Rotary Cut
- Slice Cut
Before cutting the veneer, the log is soaked or boiled in hot water, it softens the wood fibers, and there is no risk of the veneer breaking during cutting.
Saw Cut: This method is used to cut thick veneer from wood. Cutting wood in this way wastes more wood and costs more, but the annual rings come out nicely. Veneer cut by this method is used in beautification or decoration work. You need to use a straight edge next to it so that the saw does not deviate when cutting the veneer.
In this method, the wooden logs are fastened by bolts into a metal-made frame and run over the knife at a wooden log’s angle. According to the specific thickness, the wooden logs tend to rise upwards, and as a result, the veneer comes out. The annual rings are beautifully visible from this veneer. The result is the advantage of matching the veneer layer.
Rotary Cut: In the same way, many long logs are fastened firmly to the two centers of the machine with the help of a large lathe. A large sharp knife is firmly attached to the wooden log’s front so that the wooden log is rotated and the veneer is cut out with the knife.
This type of veneer is mostly used in construction work, and this method is used in commercial work. The rotary cut veneer is much longer, and veneers of different sizes can be cut. Applying this method, the cut veneer is used as a cell and cross band of ordinary plywood.
Slice Cut: This method is applied for high-quality finished veneer cutting. 0.04 cm. To be 0.72 cm. Veneers of different thicknesses can be cut up to (1 “/ 64-1” / 4). This method of veneer cutting is the complete opposite of rotary cutting. Here the knife moves back and forth, and the wooden log is fixed.
How to add veneer
Veneers have to dry at a certain temperature after cutting. After the veneer is dried, the cutting machine cuts it to a certain size, and the veneers are numbered side by side by matching the annual rings with each one. Then put the veneer side by side in the veneer pairing machine, i.e., in the tapping machine, and attach or tape with glue. When the veneer is placed on one side of the tapping machine and cooled with the machine’s help, the veneers are pulled inwards like a sewing machine, and a pair of veneers come out from the other end. If this tapping machine is not available, the veneer is placed side by side and attached with paper tape. When the veneer is attached by the tapping machine, the glue does not come off easily, and it is attached perfectly.
Plywood is made by applying pressure through a heavy press of glue to cover with thin slices of wood or veneer. Plywood is made by an odd number of veneers, such as Three Ply, Five Ply, Seven Ply, etc. Three-ply is a special board made by stacking three layers of veneer together. The veneer between the two faces (top and bottom) of the veneer is called the cross band. It is usually made with low-quality veneer.
Plywood with more than three layers is called multi-plywood. The outer layer of plywood is called the face. The fibers of the intermediate pieces of wood are called the cores. And if it is at a right angle, it is called cross-brand. Plywood is very durable. It is usually lighter than a wooden plank but does not break easily. Insects cannot easily attack insects. Plywood is used to make plywood for doors, windows, car bodies, ceiling, flush doors, tabletops, partitions, chair bottoms, etc., and is used for various purposes.
Formica is a type of laminated plastic sheet. Usually used for decoration in tabletops, cabinet tops, wall panels, etc. There are different types of formica available in the market. Onyx, for example, is grained like wood fibers. Moreover, red, white, blue, etc., formica colors are available. Formica is usually applied by applying pressure on hardboard, partex, chipboard, etc., by synthetic resin glue. In some cases, animal glue is also used. However, different precautions have to be taken while applying formica. The thickness of formica usually ranges from 0.03 cm. to 0.18 cm. (1 “/ 84 to 1” / 16) and available in 240 cm. x 120 cm. (6′-0 “x 4′-0”) length and width. Formica should be cut slightly less than the length and width of the board on which the formica is applied. The formica should be placed on the board by glue (it is better if it is uneven), pressed by hydraulic press or clamp, and left until the glue dries. Care should be taken that the glue does not fall on the board’s side under pressure and does not bind to any other object.