Shortleaf Pine Wood: Properties and Uses

shortleaf pine wood

Shortleaf Pine Wood

  • Other names: A species of the southern pine genera
  • Scientific name: Pinus echinata
  • Genera: Pinaceae
  • Places where these trees are found: Shortleaf pine is grown in the area covering from the Southeast of New York and New Jersey state to the north of Florida state, and the area in the west is spread to the eastern part of the Texas and Oklahoma state.

Physical Properties of Shortleaf Pine Wood

  • Color of wood: The dry Heartwood is colored from orange to reddish-brown. The sapwood is yellowish-white. The sapwood is thicker in the second-growth stands. When the tree is 10 years old, the Heartwood is grown. The sapwood is 25 millimeters to 50 millimeters in thickness in the case of old trees and grown in the sides.
  • Structure of the wood: The growth circles are clearly definable in the simply sawed and veneered. In the radial saw or kind of the same veneer, the structure of the growth circle is very clear, but the scratches of the growth circles are not so clear. The wood is a little resinous (especially heartwood).
  • Shrinkage: The wood is moderately more shrinkable. To reach from the green condition to the zero humidity state, 4.6 % radial, 7.7% tangential, and 12.3% total volumetric shrinkage occur.
  • Workability: Doing work with this wood is easy and convenient.
  • Weight, density, and specific gravity: It is less in weight compared to the longleaf pine. In the green condition, considering the volume and the zero humidity state, based on the weight, the specific gravity is 0.47 (density 481 kg per cubic meter), in 12% humidity for the volume and zero humidity state, based on the weight, the specific gravity is 0.51(522 kg per cubic meter).
  • Moisture at the green condition: Heartwood contains 32%, and sapwood contains 122% humidity.
  • Natural Durability: The sapwood and the heartwood are classed in the flimsy class.
  • Seasoning properties: It can be dried moderately quick in the kiln at high temperatures. The perfectly dried wood remains unchanged.
  • Treatability: You can preserve the sapwood in the pressure process, but the heartwood is not.

Mechanical properties of Shortleaf Pine Wood

The shortleaf pine is inferior to the longleaf pine, but they are categorized in the same genera as the grading rule.

  • Modulus of rupture: In green condition, the wood is 51.02 Newton per square millimeter (7400 lb. per square inch), and in the state of 12% humidity, the modulus of rupture becomes 90.34% Newton per square millimeter (13100 lb. square inch). In the American National standard for the pole, the strength in the green condition is 55.17 Newton per square millimeter (8000 lb. per square inch) is fixed.
  • Modulus of elasticity: In green condition, the modulus of rupture is 0.0095 million Newton per square millimeter (1.39 million lb. per square inch). In 12% humidity, this parameter becomes 0.0120 million Newton per square millimeter (1.75 million lb. per square inch).
  • Work to maximum load: In green condition, the wood displays 0.227 kg per cubic centimeter (8.2 lb. per cubic inch). In 12% humidity, the parameter becomes 0.304 kg per cubic centimeter (11 lb. per cubic inch).
  • Impact bending: In green conditions, the impact bending of this wood is 76.2 centimeters (30 inches), and in the state of 12% humidity, the parameter becomes 0.304 kg per cubic centimeter (11.0 lb. per cubic inch).
  • Compression parallel to grain- maximum crushing strength: In green condition, the maximum crushing strength if this wood is 24.34 Newton per square millimeter (3530 lb. per square inch) and in the state is 12% humidity, the parameter becomes 50.14 Newton per square millimeter (7270 lb. per square inch).
  • Compression perpendicular to grain-fiber stress at the proportional limit: In green condition, the wood displays 2.41 Newton per square millimeter (350 lb. per square inch), in the state of 12% humidity, the parameter becomes 5.66 Newton per square millimeter (820 lb. per square inch).
  • Shear parallel to grain- maximum shearing strength: The maximum shearing strength is 6.28 Newton per square millimeter (910 lb. per square inch) in the green condition. This parameter becomes 9.59 Newton per square millimeter (1390 lb. per square inch) in 12% humidity.
  • Tension perpendicular to grain- maximum tensile strength:  the maximum tensile strength is 2.21 Newton per square millimeter (320 lb. per square inch) in the green condition. This parameter becomes 3.24 Newton per square millimeter (470 lb. per square inch) in 12% humidity.
  • Side hardness-load perpendicular to grain:  the side hardness of this wood is 199.58 kg (440 lb.) in green condition. This parameter becomes 312.98 kg (690 lb.) in 12% humidity.

Uses of Shortleaf Pine Wood

A grading rule is used to determine the limit of density and strength of the trees of the Southern pine genera. With the help of the grading rule, a list is made, making the selection of wood of superior strength and density for the works in the construction site easy.

According to the grading rule, the gradual percentage increase rate of the wood is used. The woods of heavyweight, high density, and more strength are used to construct the factories, storerooms, bridges, harbor, and roof pillars and columns, making the poles and pilings at a high rate. The woods of inferior quality (low density and low strength) are used to construct other structures, the inner cover of the houses, furniture, subfloor, hinge, floor, crests, etc.

This wood is also used in making crank and flattened pipa. These woods are preserved with proper preservatives when used in the slipper of the rail line, electric pole, piling pole, and mine. This wood is used to make the electric cross arm, and suitable plywood is used in the construction site. The mold of paper is prepared from the wood and branches of the small trees. This wood is also used in the preparation of carpenter tar and tar oil.   

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