In this article, we’ll know what is wood glue, the types, examples, and uses of wood glue. Also, how to use wood glue correctly and appropriately to attach the woods or wood alternatives. So, let’s go for it.
Table of Contents
What is wood glue?
A durable and robust substance is used for sticking woods and wood substitutes together; this substance is called glue or adhesive. It is possible to attach plywood, laminate board, formica, glass, plastic, metal materials, etc., with glue. Adhesives are commonly two types such as natural glue and artificial glue.
Glue other than synthetic glue is called natural glue. Synthetic glue is an artificial glue. Some adhesives stick to the wood when pressed, and the pair does not open anymore; This type of glue is called thermosetting glue. Conversely, there is a type of glue that is applied to the wood with heat and then cooled. Later, if you try, then the pair will open again. This type of glue is called thermoplastic glue.
Types of glue used in woodworking
Glues can be divided into several types depending on the source. E.g.
- Synthetic glue
(b) Phenol formaldehyde, etc.
- Plant glue: A type of glue is produced from plants.
- Animal glue: Glue is made from animal horns, bones, hooves, unneeded skin, and other parts of the body. It is sold in the market in the form of hard bread or wood. You can use this glue with a little heat after soaking it in water for 2/3 hours. Casein glue, Fish glue, Blood glue, etc. include animal glues.
Basic properties of glue and gum
The basic properties of gum and glue are as follows:
- Sticking Ability: Gum or glue must have adhesive quality so that wood material or alternative wood material can be attached.
- Anti-moisture ability: Gum and glue should have anti-moisture properties so that the joints are not damaged due to moisture, and the adhesive quality is not reduced.
- Thermal capacity: Gum and glue adhesion levels will not change with increasing and decreasing temperature. But caution should be taken when using thermoplastic glue.
- Fungus infection: Any fungus cannot infect gum and glue.
- Chemical reactions: Gum and glue will not be involved in any chemical reactions and will not cause any damage the material.
- Coagulation: These will coagulate in a short time and create strong joints.
- Application Advantage: Can be easily applied in different connection places.
- Durability: The joints made by gum or glue will last for a reasonable time. It will not cause environmental pollution, bad smell. There will be no change in the color in the presence of water, including weather.
Uses and properties of glue
A description of the glues that are commonly used in wood is given below.
1. Urea-formaldehyde glue
The first thing that comes to mind when we say wood glue is synthetic urea-formaldehyde glue. The use of this glue is maximum in the wood industry. It is readily available and also cheaper. This type of glue can be used in both hot press and cold press. It has the advantage of being used for various purposes as it has no color of its own. The types of this glue are based on the natural properties of different kinds of extender, influencer, and filler.
Urea-formaldehyde glue is initially water-resistant, but you can make water-impermeable by mixing it with some melamine glue. Powdered urea-formaldehyde glue is mixed separately with water and brought to a specific concentration. This liquid glue lasts for 2/3 months, but it will last longer if stored in a cold room. Urea resin does not catch fire, nor do acids and alkalis. This glue is used in plywood, veneer laminated plastic construction, and light woodwork.
2. Casein glue
Casein glue is made from milkweed, lime, and other chemicals such as borax, sodium phosphate, etc. It’s animal glue. Casein glue is used in the manufacture of furniture and composite wood in hot and cold press methods. This glue has sufficient water-resistant quality and can also be used in damp places with wooden items paired with this glue. Casein glue was made in the cottage industry, but now the production of Casein 18 has come down due to the high cost of raw materials. Making casein glue also varies depending on the type of production method, use, etc.
The glue is made using 100 percent casein with 250 percent water, 100 percent water with 20-30 percent lime solution, and 80 percent sodium silicate. Glue is commonly used in the construction of joints, veneers, and plywood.
3. Animal glue
This glue is made by melting and cleaning the skin, horns, hooves, etc., of buffaloes. Animal glue looks like a hard cake and is available in the market. Make the hard glue lumps into powder and immersed entirely in clean and cool water, softened them, and then liquefied at 600 C. This type of glue is to be used in hot conditions to attach the wood.
4. Phenol formaldehyde glue
Phenol formaldehyde is a synthetic glue. It is water-resistant glue. You can use this glue securely for launches, boats, water-resistant plywood, outdoor fences, etc., under the open sky and outdoor weather. This glue is usually brown. The coating of this kind of glue on the paper is called tego film, and this film is used for special purposes.
5. Favicol and Mevicol
These are artificial glues available in the market in readymade conditions and very effective for attaching wood.
6. Vinyl Resins
These include synthetic resin adhesives. There are two types of vinyl resins called polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl acetate or PVA. These are required to prepare ordinary water pipes, electric cable covers, varnish, gramophone records, etc.
How to use glue correctly and appropriately
1. Liquidation of glue: Liquid glue is available in the market in boxes, bottles, and tubes. Glue is also available in powder form. You need to mix powdered glue with water. Mix the powder in water and shake well. Then wait for at least fifteen minutes and shake well again to make glue in the form of a paste, and it will be helpful to use in paste condition.
2. Spreading glue: Apply glue well on the prepared wood for making joints. It should be kept in mind that if you don’t spread the glue evenly everywhere while applying, then the joint’s strength will be less. Again, if you put too much glue somewhere, it will be extra dry and ruined.
3. Assembling the parts: The wood should be presented before the glue dries. The work done in the middle of applying pressure when the glue is spread on the wood and presented for proper pairing is called assembling. If you don’t deliver the wood properly during assembling, the item will not be appropriately placed. Keep in mind that you should make it in a way that the thing will stick together correctly. So the parts have to be set correctly and appropriately.
4. Applying pressure: The next step in using glue is to press the wood well with various metal clamps. If you want to attach a large plane joint, you have to clamp 33 cm to 36.5 cm (15 to 18 inches) one after the other or keep it under pressure for about 8 to 10 hours. In this way of applying glue, the wood is well attached, and beautiful smooth floor furniture, toys, toys, etc., are made.