Wood joints types and techniques: Names, uses, techniques, and classification of woodworking joints (how to make dovetail, lap, half lap, cross lap, wedges, etc.) given below.
Wood joints types and techniques
1. Rubbed Glued joint:
It is a joint made by two wooden adjoining planes straightened by glue and clamp. This joint is used for making furniture and door panels. This joint will be more durable when the wood is dry, and the glue is good. Bar class should be used when making this joint. It is also called a widening joint. The steps and descriptions of making glue joints are given in the figure. These joints are used to widen the wood, and the joints used to lengthen the wood are shown in the figure.
Rubbed Glued Joints: As this joint is used for joining pieces their width to make a wide board, each piece is not prepared to sides, but the whole board is planned as one piece after gluing.
Step-1: Selecting edges
(i) Find the direction of grain or sides of pieces and mark with the arrow. (ii) Mark joining edges. Note: It is necessary to mark the direction of the grain on the faces of pieces so that the grain of the finished board runs in one direction for easy planning.
Step-2: Shooting edges
(i) Place pieces (with face sides together) in vice and plane edger. (ii) Test alignment with rule of straight edge. (iii) Test fitting by holding to light, if round the top piece will swivel easily as above.
(i) Form trench and apply glue. (ii) Rub top piece to remove surplus glue. (iii) Wash off surplus glue and rest against supports while gluing sets.
Note: When resin glues are used such cramps must be applied to hold the pieces together.
Technique/How to prepare timber for wood joint
Wood needs to be prepared in the mentioned procedure to make wood joints. Joints need to be tested during preparation.
1. Plane face perfectly flat. Test with a straight edge and winding sticks. Test lengthwise, crosswise, and diagonally.
2. Plane face edge perfectly straight and square to face side. Test with a straight edge and try square.
3. Gauge to the required width on both sides from the face edge—plane down to gauge lines. Test with a straight edge and try square.
4. Gauge to the required thickness on both edges (and for wide boards along the ends) gauging from the face side. Plane down to gauge lines. Test with a straight edge and winding sticks.
5. Square cut and shoot end. Test with a try square.
6. Measure the required length from the prepared end. Square cut and shoot off the waste. Test with a try square.
Note: When planning up wide surfaces, the first plane diagonally ( )and finally plane along the grain. Test with a straight edge and winding sticks. (a) Wide boards for tabletops- hearthside (b) Glue up boards- alternate places, hearthside up and hearthside down.
2. BEAM JOINTS
The following joints are used to join the beams of the house:
A. Keys joints
B. Lap joints
C. Wedges joints
D. Half Lap Joints
3. Housed joints:
This joint is made by cutting the groove in the wood. The housing joint is used to make cabinet shelves, cupboard shelves. Set up with a throw, stop, and dovetail housing joints make cabinets durable.
Technique of making housed joints
Step-1: Setting out
Step-2: Cutting through trench
Step-3, 4: Cutting dovetail trench
Step-5, 6: Cutting stopped trench, cutting notch
4. Angle Joints
Box pin, mightier, dovetail, housing joints are used to connect the two ends of the wood.