Basic woodworking tools for beginners: There are many types of hand and power tools used in woodworking according to the types and requirements of work. In this article, we’ll learn about different types of woodworking tools and their uses.
Woodworking Tools For Beginners
Woodworking tools can be divided into two types i.e. hand tools and power tools. We’ll learn both tools step by step.
Woodworking Hand tools:
Several types of hand tools used in woodworking which are given as follows.
1. Holding and supporting tools:
- Workbench: It is a kind of table on which one or more workers can work together. Bench dice and bench hook are attached to the workbench to clasp wood. Cabinet stuck under the table to keep the equipment. You can do your work efficiently with the workbench.
- Clamp: Several types of holder and clamp are used for making joints and welding wood. Bench hook, G-clamp, miter clamp, bar clamp bench holder, metal plane, etc., are the significant tools.
2. Measuring tools:
- Steel tap: It is a tape made of steel 1 to 2 meters long. It has inch and foot marks on one side and millimeter, centimeter, and meter marks on the other side. Springs have attached to the plastic and steel boxes to enlarge the tape easily. You can do your work by keeping any tape in the pocket.
- Folding rule: Folding rules made of wood are usually one meter to two meters long. You can easily fold it.
3. Marking tools:
- Instruments for marking on wood: Tri-square miter, the square combination helps to mark on the wood at any angle. You can use a pencil to mark. All these instruments are made of steel sheets.
- Instruments for parallel marking on wood: Marking and Mortise gauge are used for parallel marking on the wood. It is made of wood and has iron pins for marking.
- Marking knife: Marking knives and compasses are used for round and straight marking. It is made of steel.
4. Testing tools:
- Testing instrument: Tri square, waving-stick, inside and out caliper are used to test the wooden plane, level, and roundness. It is made of wood and steel.
- Plumb and spirit level: These two instruments are made of steel. They check levels.
- Mortise and marking gauge: Marking gauge and Mortise usage right way are described below-
- Tri-square usage: It is used for marking and checking 90° angles on pieces of wood.
5. Sawing tools:
- Rip Saw: 24-inch long steel sheet and wooden handles are used to rip the wood in favor of fiber. It has a mark like a chisel at a 900-degree angle. Each inch has 4 to six teeth. You rip any wood.
- Crosscut or slice saw: This is a saw of the same size (rip saw), only the teeth are as sharp as a knife at 600-degree angles, so it is straightforward to cut the wood against the wood fiber.
- Tenon Saw: This is usually a 12 “to 14” long steel rip so that the saw does not bend during sawing. Number of teeth 12 inches per inch and 750 angles. This type of saw is used to cut the corner of the wood.
- Compass saw: 8″ to 16″ thin blades are enclosed in a wooden frame and can be used to cut any pole size of wood. Compass saw with a 12 “-18” thin blade can be used for the same purpose.
How to sharpen saw teeth
- It would be best if you sharpen the saw teeth with a triangular file.
- If the teeth height is uneven, you should use a flat-file to make teeth smooth.
- The file should be run evenly on the teeth when sharpening.
- You have to run the file keeping the tooth at the right angle.
How to set saw teeth
The saw teeth have to be set by bending one to the right and one to the left. The saw setter helps for the perfect setting and makes the saw more comfortable to use.
6. Plane tools: Bench Planes
Joint Plane: This plane is 26 “to 30” long and has a blade of 2/2 “. Its body is made of wood, and the blade is made of steel. This plane is used to straighten the edge of tall wood so that it is easy to join two long planks.
Smoothing plane: Its body is made of wood and steel. It is 8″ to 10″ long, and the cutter blade’s width is 1/4″ to 2″. The cap iron is attached to the blade to smooth the wood. This cap is set at 1mm up from the iron blade. Its handle is made of plastic.
Rebate plane: It is 6 “to 9” long and 1 “-1 – / 2” wide wooden and iron body with steel blade attached. This plane is used for riveting or grooving in wood.
Compass plane and Spokeshave: 10 “long and 1 1/2 ‘wide wooden concave and convex steel sheet plane is used to smooth the wood round. The same thing can be done with a spokeshave made of iron.
Molding plane: Molding different shapes can be cut by this wooden “8” long and 1″ wide plane. The cut blade is made and put on the plane according to the design of the molding.
Router plane: Rotor plane made of steel is used to clean different types of holes or trans.
7. Cutting tools:
The technique of setting cutting blades and cap iron:
- Proper cutting is easier and smoother if the hand planer’s cutter and cap iron are set correctly.
- The cap should be set 1/16″ away from the mouth of the iron cutter.
- The screw should be kept tight.
- Rebate planner: It works for cutting rebates/rabbets in wood.
- Router plane: Router plane works for cutting, trimming, and shaping wood.
- Molding plane: Molding plane works for making the complex wooden shapes/mouldings.
Blade Sharpening: The blade is removed from the body and sharpened. Here’s how to sharpen a blade:
- The blade grinding is done by setting the stool rest of the water grinding stone at an angle of 25˚-30˚. After grinding the blade, the right angle is checked in Tri Square.
- Then rub the oil on the well stone. You should rub
- The flat and bevel side should be rubbed repeatedly.
- After sharpening the blade, you can test the sharpness on the edges of the fingernails. If the blade is sharp enough, then the plane setting will work properly. The sharpness of the blade can also be checked by working.
8. Woodworking Chisel:
Chisel is used for various woodworking such as cutting, welding, carving wood for making furniture, doors, and windows. The names of various work-friendly chisels are given below-
- Bent back chisel
- Bench or cabinet chisel
- Butt chisel
- Corner chisel
- Dogleg chisel
- Firmer chisel
- Fishtail chisel
- Mortice chisel
- Paring chisel
Process of sharpening the chisel
- At first, you have to thin the chisel’s mouth in the grinding stone.
- Grinding will double or thicken to 200-250.
- Later you have to sharpen a chisel on the stone.
The technique of affix handle in chisel:
- You have to fit the chisel’s handle properly.
- You have to drive the handle by the mallet while working by the chisel.
Steps of sharpening chisel for woodworking:
- Smooth the cutting edge of the chisel on the grinding stone.
- Sharpening of cutting in well stone.
- Lift the bar of the cutting edge to check the edge at the well stone.
- Sharpen the gauge chisel and design the chisel by grip well stone.
9. Hammers and screwdrivers used in woodworking
- Ball pin hammer: It works to insert the pin into the wood.
- Cross pin hammer: It works to insert a pin into the wood.
- The hammer works to lift the pin from the wood.
- A wooden mallet drives a chisel.
- Nail punch works to insert the star into the wood.
- Screwdriver– It works to screw-drive wood. It is of two types (a) Philip screwdriver, (b) Cabinet screwdriver.
10. Scraper and sandpaper
The wood is smoothed by rubbing with a scraper in favor of the wood fiber. Scrapers and sandpaper are used for wood finishing.
The technique of wood finishing with a scraper:
- You have to sharpen the edge of the scraper with the varnisher.
- You have to smooth the edge of the scraper with the varnisher.
- You should check the finishing of the varnisher.
11. Boarding Tools:
- Auger bit: This bit works for making a large hole in the wood.
- Drill bit: This bit works for making a small hole in the wood.
- Bradawl Bit: This bit works for making various types of holes and countersinks at the wood.
- Ratchet Brace: It works for making the drive at bits.
- Wheel drill: A wheel drill helps small drill bits in drilling to make holes.
Bits sharpening techniques
Triangular, saw, round, half-round, rat-tail, bet-tail, etc., files works for sharpening bits. Each file works on certain bits. You should use the exact file when sharpening.
- You should use the triangular file for sharpening the bit lip and nib.
- The saw file for the center bit head.
- The round file for the conical shape.
- The half-round file for the twist bit lip.
- The rat-tail file for the countersink bit.
- The bet tail file for the cobra bit.
Manual hand tools and their uses
- Pincer: It works for lifting pins made of iron.
- Tamel points: It works for giving a round mark made of wood and iron.
- Saw setter: It works for setting saw teeth made of iron.
- Combination plane: It works for cutting various beads made of iron.
- Bradawl: It works for making holes in the wood for insert screws.
- Glue Brass: It works for applying wood glue.
- Moisture meter: It works for testing the moisture content of the wood.
- Adjustable wrench: It works for opening and tightening the nut.
- Spirit level: It works for checking vertical and horizontal levels.
- Pincer: It is used for removing objects typically nails.
- Woodworking gimlet: It used for drilling small holes in wood.
- Bradawl: It is used to make indentations in wood.
Woodworking Power Tools/Machines
Five most common woodworking power tools/machines are-
- Jointer machine
- Thicknesser machine
- Circular saw
- Spindle Molder machine
- Borer and Mortiser machine
It takes less space in the workshop to install this machine. It also costs less to buy. So this machine is very useful for small workshops.
Jointer for Woodworking:
The jointer’s infidel is tied to the top of the eccentric attached to the table machine in such a way that it can be engaged quickly and conveniently with the help of a lever. The outfeed table is to be kept fixed. The circular wedge type cutter block has dynamic balance and spindle speed to better finish the plane surface. It is used for wood joining.
Thicknesser for Woodworking:
The thicknesser is working by using a table at the bottom of a jointer. This table is placed on two circular columns. The height has to be adjusted by lifting or lowering the table and there are two feed speeds. It is used for wood thickening.
Circular saw for Woodworking:
The circular saw’s spindle is fastened at one end of the movable frame, the other end of which holds the motor. The skew is used to attach the frame to the correct position. The blade can be quickly set to the required height with the help of a lever. There is a device for adjusting the ripping fence file. The machine has a cross-cut use system. It is used for sawing.
Spindle molder for Woodworking:
The high-speed vertical spindle molder machine is connected to the universal woodworking machine. Its base must be vibration free. Fences are placed on the work table. It is used for riveting wood grooving.
Borer and Mortiser for Woodworking:
The universal woodworking machine has a wheel head mounting on the end of the cutter head spindle to work the borer and mortise. With the help of a hand wheel, the table can be adjusted vertically, and the lever has to move horizontally. The table can be adjusted using adjustable stops. It can be rounded, mortise, and perforated at both ends.
Advantages of using woodworking machine:
- Two machines can run within the same time.
- Sawing planning is possible.
- You don’t have to go to another machine to do wood grooving.
- Molding of different shapes can be done quickly.
- The wasting of time reduces due to work on a machine.
- The other machine is not kept in the workshop because multiple machine tasks can be done on only one machine.
- Cost-saving etc.
Limitations of using woodworking machine:
- More space is required to set up the machine.
- You have to be very careful when working dual-task at a time.
- Skilled craftsmen are required.
- High electricity etc.
Extra-Equipment of Woodworking Machine
- The tenon cutting attachment: This attachment is used on the upper side of the spindle molder table for cutting tenon.
- The sanding disk: Sanding disk fits with the spindle helps to make piece sanding.
- Loose spindle: Split spindle, Ring spindle, Cylindrical spindle are used on spindle machine.
- Dovetailing attachment: Dovetailing attachment on spindle molder to cut Dovetail.
- The cutter grinder: It is used to cutter knives grinding.
Repair and Maintenance of Woodworking Machines:
- Woodworking machines should be kept flat, bright, and clean at all times.
- If any glue sticks at the working machine, it should be removed. In this case, kerosene oil or turpentine can be used.
- The stiff brush can be used to clean by rubbing.
- The blade should be immersed in hot water for some time to clean the hard adhesive gum. Then wipe with a dry cloth. One box of oil should be given to prevent rust.
- Gulet should always be round; As a result, dust can come out quickly.
Safety Rules of Using Woodworking Machines:
- During working at the machine, the guard should be used.
- Avoid work more than one machine operating at a time.
- When duel work is done, special attention should be taken.
- After completing one operation, you can go to the next process.